1. Mutualism both organisms benefit.

  2. Commensalism: one organism benefit, does not affect the other.

  3. Nosocomial infection is an infection acquired in the hospital.

  4. Sporadic disease is a disease that occurs occasionally.

  5. Communicable disease is a disease that can be transmitted from host to host via contact such as typhoid fever, m. tuberculosis, etc.

  6. Prodromal period is the short period after incubation period and before period of illness in which mild signs and symptoms occur.

  7. Disease can occur in all stages of the disease (incubation period, prodromal period, period of illness, period of decline and period of convalescenence)

  8. An example of indirect contact (fomite) transmission is an infection obtained from a contaminated needle.

  9. An example of vector is a flea that spreads a disease.

  10. Disinfectants are used to destruct vegetative (such as table) microbes not living tissue.

  11. Antisepsis is a treatment directed at living tissue.

  12. Factors that influence the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments includes ph, presence of organic matter, microbial characteristics, number of microbes, etc.

  13. The temperature of autoclave for sterilization s 121 degrees Celcius for 15 minutes.

  14. The limitation of autoclave is that it cannot sterilize heat sensitive materials such as prions and endospores.

  15. Pasteurization is the best way to sterilize milk.

  16. Pasteurization includes HTST (high – temperature short-time) and UHT (ultra-high-temperature).

  17. Halogens are iodine and chlorine agents.

  18. Cholrox or chlorine added with water is a form of disinfectant.

  19. Bacterial/pathogens attach themselves to the host by means of ligand, fimbraie and spike.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an example of an organism that does not produce exotoxin.

  21. Exotoxins are usually produce by gram positive organisms.

  22. Endotoxin are usually produce by gram negative organisms.

  23. Exotoxin can be turned or inactivated into toxoid.

  24. Endotoxin cannot be turned into toxoid.

  25. Escherichia coli is an example of endotoxin because it is gram negative.

  26. Complements systems are made up of over 30 proteins circulating in the body and is part of 2nd line defense.

  27. The cells of the mucous membrane are covered with cilia in the lower respiratory tract.

  28. Emigration or diapedesis is the term that describe when phagocyte squeeae between the blood vessel lining to reach damaged area.

  29. An indication that the body is rising is when the skin remains cold but there is a sensation of chill.

  30. Complement proteins are proteins that circulate normally in blood serum of healthy person.

  31. Interferons are host specific but not virus specific.

  32. The complement system kills by Enhancing phagocytosis.

  33. Plasma cells are formed from B –cells.

  34. T cells originate from the bone morrow then matures in the thymus.

  35. Epitopes are found on the antigen.

  36. Antigen binding site are found on an anti-body.

  37. Penicillin is an example of a hapten.

  38. Antibodies are globulins proteins made in response to a specific antigen.

  39. IgG is a class of immunoglobulin with the most amount in the serum.

  40. Helper T-cells, Th, plays an important and central role in the immune response.

  41. Interleukins are cytokines that serve as communications between WBC (white blood cells).

  42. Natural acquired active is a type of immunity one gets after recovering from the mumps.

  43. Natural acquired passive is a type of immunity one gets from the colostrums of mothers milk.

  44. IgA colostrums

  45. Artificial acquired active is a type of immunity one gets from vaccination.

  46. Artificial acquired passive is a type of immunity one gets from serum injection.

  47. Immunity is immediate and temporary (lasts a few weeks or months) for passive natural and artificial immunities.

  48. Hay fever is an example of Anaphylactic reaction.

  49. Capsules, enzymes, cell walls help penetrate host.

  50. When protozoa invade host, ruptures and waste products result.

  51. Natural killer cells can attack parasites.

  52. IgE can indicate an allergic reacition. (E for allergy).

  53. IgA (colostrums) is given to a child through breast feeding for milk. (vitamin A – milk).

  54. Tetanus cannot be transmitted through the air.

  55. Cholera Vibrio is an entero toxins that causes diarrhea, loss of fluid and dehydration.

  56. Transient microbiota is present for several days, weeks, months then disappears.

  57. Boil and abscess is an example of localized infection.

  58. Phagocytosis, fever, inflammation, antimicrobiotic substance (complement, interferon) are the 2nd line defense mechanisms.

  59. Swelling, redness, distension of blood capillary are signs of Histamine.

  60. Histamins are produced from mast cells.

  61. Ethylene Oxide is a gaseous chemosterilizer.

  62. Sorbic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate are used to preserve meats. The sodium nitrite is responsible for the preservation of the meat red color.

  63. Zoonosis is a disease tranfered from wild animals to humans.

  64. Opportunistic pathogens are pathogens that ordinarily do not cause a disease but do so when there is an environmetal change such as when the immune system is down.

  65. Autoimmune disease occurs when self tolerance is lost. Three disorders associated with immune system include hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseased, immunodeficiences.

  66. Four types of hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylactic reactions, cytotoxic reactions, immune complex reactions, delayed cell-mediated reactions. Think of ACID. (Thanks to Amy).

  67. Allergic reactions include erythema, edema, increased mucus secretions, smooth muscle contraction, inflammatory signs amplified by neutrophils and eosinophils.

  68. The two principal hypersensitivity reactions are systemic anapylaxis (anaphylactic shock) and localized anaphylaxis.

  69. Systemic anaphylaxis is a reaction caused by the injection of allergens.

  70. Localized anaphylaxis is a reaction cause by the indigestion of foods or the inhalation of antigens (pollen, dust, etc.)

  71. Epinephrine is a treatment for systemic anaphylaxis

  72. Localized anaphylaxis can affect both lower and higher respiratory tracts.

  73. Antihistamine drugs are used to treat upper respiratory tract effects caused by localized anaphylaxis (hay fever, itchy teary eyes, coughing, sneezing).

  74. Aerosol inhalants are used to treat lower respiratory tract effects caused by localzid anaphylaxis (asthma).

  75. Delayed cell-mediated reactions involve cell-mediated response caused by T cells.

  76. PPD skin test for diagnostic of tuberculosis is an example of delayed cell-mediated reaction.

  77. Autoimmune disease is a response to self-antigens and causes damage to one’s own organs because of the loss of self tolereance.

  78. Immunodeficiency is the absence of sufficient response.

  79. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency sysndrome) and congenital deficiencies (ie. Lack of thymus = lack of cell-mediated immunity) are examples of immunodeficiencies.

  80. Immunization by vaccines is artificial active immunity.

  81. Immunization by immunoglobulins is artificial passive immunity.

  82. Six important types of vaccines are attenuated whole-agent vaccines, inactivated whole-agent vaccines, toxoids, subunit vaccines, conjugated vaccines and nucleic acids vaccines.

  83. Attenuated vaccines are prepared from weackened living microbes. Give lifelong immunity but can mutate to virulent form such as postpoliosyndrom.

  84. Vaccines that are against measles, mumps, rubella, tuberculosis are examples of anttenuated vaccines.

  85. Inactivated whole agent vaccines are prepared from microbes that have been killed by formalin.

  86. Vaccines that are agains rabies, pertusis (whoping cough) and typhoid fever are examples of inactivated whole agent vaccines.

  87. Toxoids are inactivated exotoxin by heat and chemical substance.

  88. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are examples of toxoids.

  89. Subunit vaccines are antigenic fragments of microbe produced by recombinant vaccines.

  90. Specific immunoglobulins(antiserum) are antibody produce by an organism that has been previously vaccinated.

  91. The advantage of specific immunoglobulins is its immediate immune response because it is artificial passive immunity.

  92. Tetanus antitoxins and immunoglobulins agains hepatitis virus A are examples of specific immunoglobulins.

  93. Diagnostic immunology are used for the diagnosis of interactions (serological reactions) of humoral antibodies with antigen. For instance, an unknown antigen can be identified using a known antibody. An unknown antibody can be identified using a known antigen.

  94. Important serological reactions include precipitation, agglutination, neutralization, complement fixation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fluorescent. (PANCE).

Corrections are always welcome. Thank You.